How to Get Started in Astronomy

Comet Hale-Bopp in silhouette at sundown over Pichacho Peak in Arizona.

Under the stars. How good an astronomer you become depends less on your gear than on building your knowledge and skills.
Comet Hale-Bopp in silhouette at sundown over Pichacho Peak in Arizona.
Image ©1997 Steve Redman

One evening when you are away from the city and its lights, you look up at the darkened sky and gaze at the stars, some seem to be blinking, and you wonder why. All of a sudden, you can see a shooting star and the little dipper. The moon is in an eclipse, and a feeling of amazement overcomes you. You begin to wonder what else is there to see. How about a galaxy that is 2½ million light-years away with nothing more than your eyes. Or a star cluster that is so densely packed with stars it looks like a bloated star with the naked-eye. There is so much up there to learn about and enjoy, and it is not difficult or expensive to become involved.

It seems so overwhelming, so where do you start?

First, you start by reading. Visit your local library and browse through the astronomy section. There are a variety of books which are geared toward beginners as well as the more advanced. Find one that is an introduction to astronomy, and learn about the physics of the cosmos. Search the ‘net by the word ‘Astronomy’ and be assured you will receive a vast array of information as well as pictures. Visit Sky & Telescope and Astronomy Magazines. Find an astronomy club near you, such as the San Antonio Astronomical Association.

 

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It’ll take some practice . . . but pretty quickly you’ll be able to trace out star patterns in the sky with the help of star charts.

The next step is to purchase a star atlas or a star map which will aid you in learning the night sky with the naked-eye.  After all, astronomy is an outdoor nature hobby. Go out into the night and learn the starry names and patterns overhead.

You can also purchase a planetarium program for your computer, tablet, or phone. Or an app, such as “Starmap”, that will use your mobile phone’s GPS feature to show you what is in the night sky in the direction that you are pointing your phone.

Even if you live in a densely populated, light-polluted area, there’s more to see up there than you might imagine. The ability to look up and say, “There’s Polaris” or “That’s Saturn” will provide pleasure, and perhaps a sense of place in the cosmos, for the rest of your life.

3. Now it is time to find someplace dark to observe from that is well away from the glare of city lights. A good choice might include national and state parks. Inquire at these places about presentations about the night sky as well. Use your eyes. It is not necessary to buy an expensive telescope because the naked eye can see a great deal in the night sky. By observing with only your eyes you get a true feeling of how ancient astronomers practiced their craft. If you can, try to lie down on the grass and look at the sky above you. The darkened sky takes on another dimension in this position, and creates a feeling of you being totally alone in a vast universe. Locate the North Star, and follow the ‘map of the sky’. Make sure you have the correct star map to coincide with the date and location. If you have studied the books, you might be able to find the “Little Dipper” and other constellations or asterisms. Start attending public star parties thrown by your local astronomy club, such as the SAAA’s own Astronomy in the Park.

Even lightweight binoculars will reveal hundreds of cosmic wonders, from lunar craters and double stars to galaxies millions of light-years away.

Even lightweight binoculars will reveal hundreds of cosmic wonders, from lunar craters and double stars to galaxies millions of light-years away.

4. It is tempting rush out and purchase the biggest telescope you can afford, but it is recommended that you buy a pair of good binoculars instead. If your naked-eye observations have gotten you excited about astronomy, get a good set of binoculars and observe the night sky with them for a more close-up view. Binoculars show you a wide field of view, making it easy to find your way around — whereas a higher-power telescope magnifies only a tiny, hard-to-locate bit of sky. Binoculars show a view that’s right-side up and straight in front of you, making it easy to see where you’re pointing. (An astronomical telescope’s view, by contrast, is often upside down, is sometimes mirror-imaged as well, and is usually presented at right angles to the direction you’re aiming.)Binoculars are also relatively cheap, widely available, and a breeze to carry and store. And their performance is surprisingly respectable. Ordinary 7- to 10-power binoculars improve on the naked-eye view about as much as a good amateur telescope improves on the binoculars — for much less than half the price.

For astronomy, the larger the front lenses the better. High optical quality is also important, more so than for binoculars that are used on daytime scenes. Modern image-stabilized binoculars are a tremendous boon for astronomy (though expensive). But any binoculars that are already knocking around the back of your closet are enough to launch an amateur-astronomy career. 10×50 binoculars are excellent for stargazing.

star chart 1705. Now that you have binoculars, what do you do with them? You can have fun looking at the Moon and sweeping the star fields of the Milky Way, but that will wear thin pretty fast. However, if you’ve learned the constellations and obtained detailed sky maps, binoculars can keep you happily busy for years.

They’ll reveal dozens of star clusters, galaxies, and nebulae. They’ll show the ever-changing positions of Jupiter’s moons and the crescent phases of Venus. You can identify dozens of craters, plains, and mountains on the Moon. You can split scores of interesting double stars and follow the fadings and brightenings of numerous variable stars. If you know what to look for.

As a sailor of the seas needs top-notch charts, and so does a sailor of the skies. Fine maps bring the fascination of hunting out faint secrets in hidden sky realms. Many guidebooks describe what’s to be hunted and the nature of the objects you find. Moreover, the skills you’ll develop using binoculars to locate these things are exactly the skills you’ll need to put a telescope to good use.

Plan indoors what you’ll do outdoors. Spread out your charts and guides on a big table, find things that ought to be in range of your equipment, and figure out how you’ll get there. Plan your expeditions before heading out into the nightly wilderness.

ObservationLogDouble6. You should keep a diary.  There are many reasons to do so, but it seems that the people who get the most out of the hobby are often those who keep an observing logbook of what they do and see.  Keeping a record helps focus the mind — even if it’s just a jotting like “November 7th — out with the 10×50 binocs — clear windy night — NGC 457 in Cassiopeia a faint glow next to two brighter stars.”  You don’t need anything fancy, just get a spiral-bound notebook and keep it with the rest of your observing gear. Being able to look back on your early experiences and sightings in years to come gives deeper meaning to your activities now.

SAAA's Astronomy in the Park, a local star party

SAAA’s Astronomy in the Park, a local star party

7. Self-education is fine as far as it goes, but there’s nothing like sharing an interest with others. Hundreds of astronomy clubs exist around the world.  Astronomy Magazine and Sky & Telescope have club listings.  Call or e-mail a club near you, or check out its web site, and see when it holds meetings or nighttime observing sessions — “star parties.”  These events, some of which draw hundreds of amateurs, can offer a fine opportunity to try different telescopes, learn what they will and will not do, pick up advice and new skills, and make friends.

Astronomy clubs range from tiny to huge, from moribund to vital, from ingrown to extremely welcoming of newcomers. You’ll have to check them out yourself. But none would be publicizing themselves in our directory if they weren’t hoping that you would call.

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Just say NO to department store telescopes

8.  Sooner or later you’ll know you’re ready.  You’ll have spent hours poring over the ads and reviews. You’ll know the different kinds of telescopes, what you can expect of them, and what you’ll do with the one you pick.

This is no time to skimp on quality; shun the flimsy, semi-toy “department store” scopes that may have caught your eye. The telescope you want has two essentials. The first is a solid, steady, smoothly working mount. The second is high-quality, “diffraction-limited” optics.

Naturally you’ll also want large aperture (size), but don’t lose sight of portability and convenience. Remember, the best telescope for you is the one you’ll use most. Sometimes gung-ho novices forget this and purchase a huge “white elephant” that is difficult to carry, set up, and take down, so it rarely gets used. How good an astronomer you become depends not on what your instrument is, but on how much you use it.

Many new telescopes have built-in computers and motors that can, in theory, point the scope to any celestial object at the push of a few buttons (after you do some initial setup and alignment). These “Go To” scopes are fun to use and can certainly help you locate sights you might otherwise overlook. But opinions in the amateur-astronomy world are divided about whether “flying on automatic pilot,” at least for beginners, keeps you from learning to fly on your own. We think it’s important, at least for backup purposes, to be able to use your charts and constellation knowledge to find telescopic objects by yourself — especially if the scope’s batteries die after you’ve driven 50 miles to a dark-sky location!

And as Terence Dickinson and Alan Dyer say in their Backyard Astronomer’s Guide, “A full appreciation of the universe cannot come without developing the skills to find things in the sky and understanding how the sky works. This knowledge comes only by spending time under the stars with star maps in hand and a curious mind.” Without these, “the sky never becomes a friendly place.”

It’s true that telescopes can cost thousands of dollars, but some good ones can be had for only a few hundred. Can’t afford the scope you want? Save up until you can. More time using binoculars while building a telescope fund will be time you’ll never regret.

If you choose to start with a small but high-quality scope, it can serve as your traveling companion for a lifetime — whenever it’s impractical to bring along the big, more expensive scope that you eventually buy after your commitment to the hobby has passed the test of time.

If you find yourself getting frustrated with your new telescope, turn to the experts, members of your local club.  Other resources include [[[ look at YouTube for telescope videos ]]]

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Join the SAAA!

 9.  Now that you have a telescope, consider joining an astronomy club.  Amateur astronomy is very popular in most cities and small towns. Search the Internet to find a club in your vicinity or get information by calling a local planetarium.  Or you can visit Astronomy Magazine’s and Sky & Telescope’s club listings pages.  Clubs give you the opportunity to learn from others who have more experience, and to meet and make new friends with other beginners who have the same interest in astronomy.

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Texas Star Party

10.  Attend a star party.  Star parties are outdoor meetings where amateur astronomers meet and look at the sky together. Many are already members of an astronomy club. This can be quite interesting, especially since each person might find a new area, star or planet that you might have overlooked.   The big 3 star parties for folks in South Central Texas are the Texas Star Party, Okie-Tex Star Party, and Eldorado Star Party.  You can find a list of star parties at StarDate, SkyNews, and Sky & Telescope.

 11. Subscribe to an astronomy magazine. There are a number of periodicals which cater to amateur astronomers. Among the most popular are Sky & Telescope and Astronomy. These magazines provide monthly calendars, a wealth of sky watching tips, amazing pictures, and up-to-date information on new products and discoveries.
12. Subscribe to an astronomy podcast, such as Astronomycast, Jodcast, or StarDate,. They are free and you can search for them in iTunes and many other podcast directories.

13. Be prepared to lose your ego.  Astronomy teaches patience and humility — and you had better be prepared to learn them.  Not everything will work the first time. You’ll hunt for some wonder in the depths and miss it, and hunt again, and miss it again. This is normal. But eventually, with increasing knowledge, you will succeed.

There’s nothing you can do about the clouds that move in to block your view, the extreme distance and faintness of the objects of your desire, or the special event that you missed because you got all set up one minute late. The universe will not bend to your wishes; you must take it on its own terms.

Most objects that are within the reach of any telescope, no matter what its size, are barely within its reach. So most of the time you’ll be hunting for things that appear very dim or very small, or both. You need the attitude that they will not come to you; you must go to them. If flashy visuals are what you’re after, go watch TV.

14.  Most importantly; relax and have fun.   Part of losing your ego is not getting upset at your telescope because it’s less than perfect. Perfection doesn’t exist, no matter what you paid. If you find yourself getting wound up over Pluto’s invisibility or the aberrations of your eyepiece, take a deep breath and remember why you’re doing this. Amateur astronomy should be calming and fun.

Learn to take pleasure in whatever your instrument can indeed show you. The more you look and examine, the more you will see — and the more you’ll become at home in the night sky. Set your own pace, and delight in the beauty and mystery of our amazing universe.